A comprehensive genomic history of extinct and living elephants

Elephantids are the world’s most iconic megafaunal family, yet there is no comprehensive genomic assessment of their relationships. We report a total of 14 genomes, including 2 from the American mastodon, which is an extinct elephantid relative, and 12 spanning all three extant and three extinct elephantid species including an ∼120,000-y-old straight-tusked elephant, a Columbian mammoth, and woolly mammoths. Earlier genetic studies modeled elephantid evolution via simple bifurcating trees, but here we show that interspecies hybridization has been a recurrent feature of elephantid evolution. We found that the genetic makeup of the straight-tusked elephant, previously placed as a sister group to African forest elephants based on lower coverage data, in fact comprises three major components. Most of the straight-tusked elephant’s ancestry derives from a lineage related to the ancestor of African elephants while its remaining ancestry consists of a large contribution from a lineage related to forest elephants and another related to mammoths. Columbian and woolly mammoths also showed evidence of interbreeding, likely following a latitudinal cline across North America. While hybridization events have shaped elephantid history in profound ways, isolation also appears to have played an important role. Our data reveal nearly complete isolation between the ancestors of the African forest and savanna elephants for ∼500,000 y, providing compelling justification for the conservation of forest and savanna elephants as separate species.

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Author Palkopoulou, Eleftheria
Last Updated November 20, 2019, 16:45 (UTC)
Created August 1, 2019, 10:29 (UTC)
Article Host Type repository
Article Is Open Access true
Article License Type
Article Version Type publishedVersion
Citation Report https://scite.ai/reports/10.1073/pnas.1720554115
DOI 10.1073/pnas.1720554115
Date Last Updated 2019-07-31T19:53:36.913839
Evidence oa repository (via OAI-PMH title and first author match)
Funder code(s) National Human Genome Research Institute (U54 HG003067-08); Wellcome Trust (WT098051, WT108749/Z/15/Z); National Science Foundation (BCS-1032255); National Institute of General Medical Sciences (GM100233)
Journal Is Open Access false
Open Access Status green
PDF URL http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc5856550?pdf=render
Publisher URL http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc5856550