VERNALIZATION1 controls developmental responses of winter wheat under high ambient temperatures

Low temperatures are required to regulate the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth via a pathway called vernalization. In wheat, vernalization predominantly involves the cold upregulation of the floral activator VERNALIZATION1 ( VRN1 ). Here, we have used an extreme vernalization response, identified through studying ambient temperature responses, to reveal the complexity of temperature inputs into VRN-A1 , with allelic inter-copy variation at a gene expansion of VRN-A1 modulating these effects. We find that the repressors of the reproductive transition, VERNALIZATION2 ( VRN2 ) and ODDSOC2 , are re-activated when plants experience high temperatures during and after vernalization. In addition, this re-activation is regulated by photoperiod for VRN2 but was independent of photoperiod for ODDSOC2 . We also find this warm temperature interruption affects flowering time and floret number and is stage specific. This research highlights the important balance between floral activators and repressors in coordinating the response of a plant to temperature, and that the absence of warmth is essential for the completion of vernalization. This knowledge can be used to develop agricultural germplasm with more predictable vernalization responses that will be more resilient to variable growth temperatures.

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Author Dixon, Laura E.
Last Updated November 20, 2019, 16:43 (UTC)
Created August 1, 2019, 10:27 (UTC)
Article Host Type publisher
Article Is Open Access true
Article License Type cc-by
Article Version Type publishedVersion
Citation Report https://scite.ai/reports/10.1242/dev.172684
DOI 10.1242/dev.172684
Date Last Updated 2019-06-30T18:01:09.837673
Evidence open (via page says license)
Funder code(s) FP7 Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, Biotechnology (ADAPTAWHEAT); Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/P016855/1, BBS/E/J/000PR9779); Royal Society (UF150081); International Wheat Yield Partnership (IWYP76)
Journal Is Open Access false
Open Access Status hybrid
PDF URL https://dev.biologists.org/content/develop/146/3/dev172684.full.pdf
Publisher URL https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.172684